Ajahn Brahm 20th c CE Australia; UK

British-Australian Theravada Buddhist monk, Founder and current Abbot of Bodhinyana Monastery in Western Australia, and other advisory roles in that part of the world. Emphasises jhanas in meditation. Very active in getting ordination (controversially) restored to Theravada bikkhunis.

more about and by

Buddhist Society of Western Australia

Restoring Theravada bikkhuni ordination: Interview given about the bhikkhuni issue, on 28 February 2009.
Bikkhuni.net - abbreviated version.
Bikkhuni.net - full transcription.
Web.Archive.org - archived full version, in case Bikkhuni.net changes their urls again.

Ajahn Chah 20th c CE Thailand

"an influential teacher of the Buddhadhamma and a founder of two major monasteries in the Thai Forest Tradition." wikipedia

Ajahn Sumedho 20th-21st c CE UK; Thailand

"a seminal figure in the transmission of the Buddha's teachings to the West." wikipedia

more about

"Ajahn Sumedho is a prominent figure in the Thai Forest Tradition. His teachings are very direct, practical, simple, and down to earth. In his talks and sermons he stresses the quality of immediate intuitive awareness and the integration of this kind of awareness into daily life. Like most teachers in the Forest Tradition, Ajahn Sumedho tends to avoid intellectual abstractions of the Buddhist teachings and focuses almost exclusively on their practical applications, that is, developing wisdom and compassion in daily life." wikipedia

Altan Khan 16th c CE Mongolia

Mongolian emperor. Under the special priest/patron relationship between tibet and mongolia, initiated the institution of Dalai Lamas in tibet.

Appointed the Third Dalai Lama, and retroactively the First and Second.

Arjia Gegeen 20th c CE Mongolia

Mongolian rinpoche (gegeen) and abbot of Kumbum Monastery in tibet. He was also a vice-president of the Buddhist Association of China and deputy chairman of the Qinghai People's Political Consultative Conference. One of the most important religious leaders to leave tibet. On a visit to America in 1998, he decided to stay, much to the chagrin of the Chinese government, who took two years before they finally officially removed him from his post.

Arjia Gegeen now lives in Mill Valley California, from where he teaches Buddhism throughout America. history

Ashoka 3rd Century BCE india

Indian emperor. Also, "Asoka". Erected pillars all over india. A committed buddhist; sent people to Syria and Egypt to teach dharma.

Towards the end of his reign a great Buddhist council was held in Pataliputra (now called Patna).

Buddhaghoṣa ~400 CE Sri Lanka

'Voice of the Buddha' (Buddha+ghosa) in Pali

Buddhist scholar who compiled the Theravada in Pali from scattered older traditions.

Chadrel Rinpoche ~1990s tibet

Abbot of Tashi Lhunpo. Headed the search team for the child Panchen Lama, Gendun Choekyi Nyima. Arrested by Chinese authorities in 1995

Channa 6th c BCE india

Charioteer of Gautama the Buddha, when Gautama was a Prince, before his enlightenment. Channa taught Prince Gautama many useful things, and was the person who explained the universal nature of the old, sick, and dead persons, which led Gautama to undertake his life of meditation which led to his enlightenment.

Chögyam Trungpa ཆོསརྒྱམ་དྲུང་པ་ 1939-1987 CE tibet, US

Eleventh Trungpa Tulku, of the Karma-ka-gyu school. Abbot of Surmang.

Born in Geje, Nyishu-tza-nga, in eastern tibet (amdo)

Wrote biography, Born in tibet; books on meditation; a book for westerners, The Way of the Warrior.

Chögyam Trungpa at Wikipedia

Dalai Lama Vth 17th c CE tibet

The Vth Dalai Lama, Ngawang Lozong Gyatso, "The Great Fifth" History: [1]

Dalai Lama VIIth 18th c CE tibet

The VIIth Dalai Lama, Kalsang Gyatso.

His period is marked by power struggles among mongols, ambans, tibetans, and chinese. He restores order, establishes the temporal authority of the Dalai Lama, builds the Norbulingka Palace. and establishes the Tse School. [history]

Dalai Lama XIIIth 19th-20th c CE tibet

Thubten Gyatso, The Thirteenth Dalai Lama.

history biography

Dalai Lama XIVth 20th-21st c CE tibet, india

Tenzin Gyatso, "Ocean of Wisdom" - The Fourteenth Dalai Lama.

more about

His full formal name is Je-tsun Jamphel Ngawang Lobsang Yeshi Tenzin Gyatso.

History: [born 1935] [escapes Chinese invasion 1959] [situation in 1990]

The Dalai Lama's website is DalaiLama.com

An excellent summary of the Dalai Lama's life and work is at LionsRoar.com

Dekyi Tsering 1900-1981 CE tibet, india

Mother of His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama. She was of farmer family. Raised 11 children in tibet and escaped to india with her son the Dalai Lama, and her daughter Tsering Dolma.

Devadatta 6th c BCE india

A cousin and lifelong enemy of Gautama the Buddha. He wounded a swan being watched by the Buddha, who refused to give it to him. By this the Buddha formulated the Principle of Property: 'A living being belongs to the one who loves it.'

The name has the same meaning as the Latin Deodatus - god-given. [ ref ]

Diana St. Ruth 20th c CE United States

Teacher in Western Tradition. Editor of Buddhism Now

Dilgo Khyentse Rinpoche དིལ་མགོ་མཁྱེན་བརྩེ 20th c CE Bhutan

Lama and Master of Vajrayana Buddhism. Incarnation of 19th-century Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo.

b. 1910 in Kham, 'as fourth son of the Dilgo family, which traced its descent from the great ninth-century king of Tibet, Trisong Detsen.' [ ref ] His monastery in tibet is Shechen Monastery.

Principal instructor in Nyingma to His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama

Biography Dilgo Khytense at Wikipedia

Dombhipa ?? ??

A great Buddhist siddha. [ref]

Dzongsar Jamyang Khyentse Rinpoche Khyentse Norbu 21st c CE Bhutan

Third incarnation of 19th-century Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo. b. 1961 in eastern Bhutan

Lama, filmmaker, and writer.

more about

Author of possibly the first-ever Buddhist social media code of conduct: go: article at Patheos.com (new window / secure tab)"Social media guidelines for so-called Vajrayana students"

His three major films are The Cup (1999), Travellers and Magicians (2003), and Vara: A Blessing (2013). Author of the books What Makes You Not a Buddhist (Shambhala, 2007) and Not for Happiness: A Guide to the So-Called Preliminary Practices (Shambhala, 2012).

go: more info at Wikipedia.org (new window / secure tab)more at Wikipedia

Edward Conze ?? ??

Western scholar and writer on Buddhism

Evans-Wentz ?? ??

Western scholar and writer on Buddhism

Gampopa སྒམ་པོ་པ or Sonam Rinchen བསོད་ནམས་རིན་ཆེན་ 11th c CE tibet

Founded the monastic tradition of the Ka-gyü school. A pupil of Milarepa. Wrote the classical work, The Ornament of Precious Liberation, which is still a leading manual of this school.

Gampopa at Wikipedia
Ornament of Precious Liberation at WikiSource

Gautama ~563 - ~480 BCE sakya, india, tibet

The prince who became the Buddha.

Born at Lumbini, near the capital Kapilavastu, as the son of Suddhodana the king of Sakya, and the queen Maya. Left his royal life for a life of solitude and meditation at the age of 29. After six years of asceticism, came to the conclusion that that was not the Way. Determined to remain seated under the bodhi, fig, tree at Bodh Gaya until he reached enlightenment. There he attained enlightenment and perceived the Four Noble Truths. He determined to remain in the world and teach others out of compassion for humanity.

He first walked to Varanasi where he preached his first sermon in the deer-park Isipatana at Sarnath. He then wandered all over north-central india with his followers, teaching.

He entered Paranirvana at the age of 80, at Kusinara.

Praise-names are Sakyamuni, Siddartha, Tathagata, Dharmaketu.
Also Gautama Buddha, Gotama.

Gendun Choephel དགེ་འདུན་ཆོས་འཕེལ་ ?? tibet, india

Amdo nyönpa. Traveled in india, lived in Kalimpong and other places. Criticized Buddhism and government in tibet, and said that Sri Lanka had the true Buddhism.

Gendun Choephel at Wikipedia

(Geshe) Thupten Jinpa 20th c CE tibet, india

Translator for the XIVth Dalai Lama.

Translated The World of Tibetan Buddhism.

Thupten Jinpa at Wikipedia

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo འཇམ་དབྱངས་མཁྱེན་བརྩེའི་དབང་པོ་ 20th c CE tibet

1820 - 1892. Previous incarnation of Khyentse Rinpoche

Jamyang Khyentse Wangpo at Wikipedia

Jemsa ཕྲུལ་ཆས་ནང་གི་གདོན་འདྲེ། དྲ་ངོས་ གོམ་པ། 2001- CE US, india, tibet-in-exile

One of many who brought some teachings of web-building, Open Source, and coding from the West to the tibetan community at Dharamshala, india. His chelas little know how much more he has learned from them.

Jetsun Pema རྗེ་བཙུན་པདྨ་ 1940- CE tibet, india

Je-tsun Pema is youngest sister of His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama. She has played a major part in the education of refugee tibetan children, taking over management of the Tibetan Children's Villages after the death of her sister Tsering Dolma.

She grew up in tibet, was educated in sikkim and europe. She has spent her life in Dharamshala serving tibet. She was first woman minister of the Tibetan government in exile, and was awared the title "Mother of Tibet" by its National Assembly (kashag).

Jetsun pema at Wikipedia

Kalsang Gyatso བསྐལ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ 1708-1757 CE tibet

The VIIth Dalai Lama.

7th Dalai Lama at Wikipedia

Düsum Khyenpa དུས་གསུམ་མཁྱེན་པ་ 1110-1193 CE tibet

The First Gyalwa Karmapa, and founder of the Karma-ka-gyu, or kagyud, school of Buddhism.

Düsum Khyenpa at Wikipedia
Karma Kagyu at Wikipedia

Khion Konchog Gyalpo 11th c CE tibet The founder of the Sakyapa lineage of Tibetan Buddhism. [ ref ]
Krishnamurti 1895-1986 CE india, england, USA

A teacher of self-knowledge through individual effort. "In 1909, when he was just fourteen, Krishnamurti. was proclaimed the world teacher-to-be in whom Maitrreya, the Bodhisattva of compassion, would manifest. The proclamation was made by Annie Besant, then president of the Theosophical Society, a movement that combined Western occult philosophy with Buddhist and Hindu teachings. Besant trained Krishnamurti in his role as the chosen one, but twenty years later he chose to disband the order he was the head of and set out alone on his endless journey." [ ref ]

Krishnamurti at Wikipedia

Kublai Khan 13th c CE Mongol Empire

history: 1271Conquers much of China, laying the framework for the current situation of tibetans under places: ChinaChina. [ biblio: John Manref ]

Kumarajiva 344 - 413 CE Xinjiang

places: ChinaChina. [ biblio: John Manref ]

Kyabje Trijang Rinpoche 1901-1981 CE tibet

Junior Tutor to His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama
Gave His Holiness transmission and teachings of the Eight Verses for Training the Mind

Third Trijang Rinpoche at Wikipedia

Langri Thangpa གླང་རི་ཐང་པ། 1054-1123 CE tibet

Kadampa master.
Composer of Eight Verses for Training the Mind

Langri Tanpa at Wikipedia

Lhamo Thondup 20th c CE tibet

Previous name of Tenzin Gyatso, The XIVth Dalai Lama.

Lha-tho Tho-Ri Nyen-Tsen ~ 1000 CE tibet

A king of Tibet. Introduced Buddhism into tibet.

(Lama) Lobsang Thamcho Nyima 20 c CE tibet, india

"was born in the small village of Shiwa, Ngabha, in amdo province of tibet. He entered a Bonpo monastery at the age of eleven, but was soon recognized as a 'tulku' of the Gelugpa tradition and moved to Archok Monastery, where he started his formal education in buddhism. Later he moved to Lobrfang Monastery for studying Tibetan Medicine. At the age of seventeen, Lobsang Thamcho Nyima came to india, to continue his studies in Gaden Monastery in south india. In 1996 he came to Dharamshala with the aim of spreading his tantric knowledge of Tibetan Medicine, through teaching it to students from around the world."


Lozang Chosgyan 16th c CE tibet

Of Tashilhunpo. Taught Yonten Gyatso, the fourth Dalai Lama, at Drepung. Was recognized as the first Panchen Lama. His reincarnations inherited this title.

Manchu Emperor   China

Seen as the reincarnation of Manjushri, Buddha of wisdom,

Matthieu Ricard 1946- CE U.S., Nepal

Buddhist monk, orginally from France. Student of Khyentse Rinpoche, personal assistant for the last 14 years of his life, and wrote a biography of him. Has translated and edited numerous books on Tibetan Buddhism, also was a biologist and photographer among other skills. As of 1996, had been a monk for 18 years, and lives in Nepal at Shechen Monastery.

Matthieu Ricard at Wikipedia

Marpa 1012-1097 CE tibet

"Marpa the Translator", "Marpa the Adept".
Brings indian buddhist teachings to tibet. Introduced the basic teaching of the Kagyu school. [ref]
Made three difficult journeys into india from tibet to study with Naropa and other indian buddhist gurus and bring teachings back to tibet. Also translated the teachings to Tibetan from Sanskrit. One of the leading scholars of the New Translation Period. One of his chief disciples was Milarepa. [ref]

His biography was written by Tsang Nyön.

Marpa Lotsawa at Wikipedia

Māyā means "love" in Sanskrit.
Māyā is also called Mahāmāyā ("Great Māyā") and Māyādevī ("Queen Māyā").
Tib. Gyutrulma Jap. Maya-fujin (摩耶夫人) Jap. Maya-fujin (摩耶夫人)
died 563 BCE Sakya

Wife of Suddhodana the king of Sakya, and mother of Gautama the Buddha, whom she bore in Lumbini.

Maya (mother of the Buddha) at Wikipedia

Milarepa རྗེ་བཙུན་མི་ལ་རས་པ་ c. 1052-c. 1135 CE tibet

One of tibet's most famous yogis, poets, and Buddhist teachers. A student of Marpa Lotsawa (Marpa the Translator), and a major figure in the history of the Kagyu school of Tibetan Buddhism. His biography was written by Tsang Nyön.

Milarepa at Wikipedia

नागार्जुन, ཀླུ་སྒྲུབ་
c. 150 CE-c. 250 CE india, tibet

Indian scholar; brought Buddhist teachings to tibet.

Along with his disciple Āryadeva, he is considered to be the founder of the Madhyamaka school of Mahāyāna Buddhism.

Nagarjuna at Wikipedia

Ngawang Lobsang Gyatso ངག་དབང་བློ་བཟང་རྒྱ་མཚོ་ 1617-1682 CE tibet

The "Great Fifth", Vth Dalai Lama of tibet.

5th Dalai Lama at Wikipedia

(Acharya) Nyima Tsering 1963-2011 CE india

A tibetan writer on Buddhism, and a translator from Tibetan to English, especially the works of Patrul Rinpoche. A friend and teacher to many of the local residents of McLeod Ganj, india.

Acharya Nyima Tsering at Wikipedia Website: AcharyaNyima.com

Ngodup Paljor 1948-1988 CE - dzongka, tibet - india, thailand, US - tibetan

A tibetan monk, scholar, translator, writer, and poet. Among many other things he did in his life, he translated for His Holiness the XIVth Dalai Lama at the 11th General Conference of the World Fellowship of Buddhists in Bangkok in 1976. Founded Khawachen Dharma Center in Anchorage, Alaska, US, and over the next nine years brought Buddhist teachers to Alaska.

More about Paljor la in his bio.

Orgyen Trinley Dorje ཨོ་རྒྱན་འཕྲིན་ལས་རྡོ་རྗེ། XVIIth Karmapa Lama 20th c CE tibet

The XVIIth Karmapa Lama, head of the Karma-ka-gyu school of Buddhism. His monastery was near Lhasa. He escaped from tibet in 1999, and came to the Dalai Lama in india, where he now lives.

His position is also called Gyalwa Karmapa.

His website is KagyuOffice.org Karmapa at Wikipedia
Ogyen Trinley Dorje at Wikipedia

Padmasambhava "Lotus-born" Guru Rinpoche 8th c CE Oḍḍiyāna, tibet

Indian scholar, brought Buddhist teachings to tibet. He was invited to restore Buddhism in tibet by King Trisong Detsen.
The Nyingmapa school of Tibetan Buddhism was based on these earliest teachings.
[ ref ]
"He was born in Uddiyana, in the north of india [in what is now Swat Valley, Pakistan]. Introduced Buddhism to tibet by subduing local rebels. He also helped to build Samye, the first Buddhist monastery in tibet." [ ref ]
The lake Tso Pema in northern india is sacred to him.
Author of the Bardo Thödol (Tibetan Book of the Dead). [ ref ]
Considered the guardian of tibet, and deity of wordly action. Tamed the eight hostile demons, Dharmapalas, who became the fiery defenders of Dharma.
One of the most common illustrations of him is a triptych which symbolizes the Three Vehicles, of which he is a personification of Tantrayana, the vehicle using worldly things as means to enlightenment. [ ref ]

Padmasambhava at Wikipedia

Patrul Rinpoche
Zapatrul Ugyen Jigme Choekyi Wangdue
1808-1887 CE tibet

A prominent teacher and author of the Nyingma school of Tibetan Buddhism. Author of Words of my Perfect Teacher.

Patrul Rinpoche at Wikipedia

Panchen Lama IX CE tibet

Abducted by Chinese authorities in 1995 at the age of 5, and a puppet panchen put in his place.

Pema Chödrön 20th-21st c CE Canada, United States

Mahayana teacher - PemaChodronFoundation.org

An excellent summary of Pema Chodron's life and work is at LionsRoar.com

Pema Chodron at wikipedia

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Some favorite teachings from Pema Choedron:
just take three breaths: LionsRoar.com
doing tonglen: LionsRoar.com
doing meditation: LionsRoar.com
Rahula 6th c BCE india

Son of Gautama the Buddha, when Gautama was a Prince, before his enlightenment. Joined the Buddha when he came back to Kapilavastu.

Sakya Pandit 13 c CE, d. 1251 tibet

Leader of the Sakya school; became the religious tutor of the Mongol emperors. In exchange was given poltical rule over tibet while acknowledging Mongol authority.

Santideva ?? tibet

Author of the Bodhicaryavatara.

Songtsen Gampo 617 - 650 CE tibet

The greatest among tibetan kings. A great conqueror, able administrator, and reformer. Set down the ten moral principles and sixteen rules for the conduct of the people. Sent his minister to india to learn Sanskrit, for the purpose of developing a Tibetan script.

Married Bhrikuti, daughter of Amsuvarman, the Nepalese ruler. (The Tsulakhang was built to house the images she brought.)

Won many battles with neighboring countries, organized districts in the kingdom, appointed ministers to advise him. [ref]

Suddhodana 6th c BCE sakya, nepal

The king of Sakya. Husband of Maya, and father of Gautama the Buddha.

Tenzin Choegyal 20th c CE tibet, india tibetan - gelug

Youngest brother of the XIVth Dalai Lama, and reincarnation of Ngari Rinpoche.

Thích Nhất Hạnh 20th-21st c CE vietnam, france zen

Mahayana teacher. wikipedia

An excellent summary of Thích Nhất Hạnh's life and work is at LionsRoar.com

Thogme Zangpo ཐོམག་མེ་ཟང་པོ་ ... tibet tibetan

Teacher; author of The Thirty-Seven Practices རྒྱལ་སྲས་ལག་ལེན་སོ་བདུན་མ༎

Thubten Jigme Norbu 20th c CE tibet, india tibetan - gelug

Oldest brother of the XIVth Dalai Lama, and reincarnation of Takster Rinpoche.

Trisong Detsen ཁྲི་སྲོང་ལྡེ་བཙན་ 755-794 CE tibet

A great king of tibet. Important to the history of Tibetan Buddhism as one of the three "Dharma Kings" (Tibetan: chosgyal) who established Buddhism in tibet. The other two Dharma Kings were Songtsän Gampo and Ralpacan.

Trisong Detsen at Wikipedia

Tsang Nyön 1452-1507 CE tibet tibetan

A famous nyonpa. Wrote biographies "The Life of Marpa the Translator" and another for Milarepa

Tsering Dolma 1920-1964 CE tibet, india tibetan - gelug

Oldest sister of the XIVth Dalai Lama. She played a major part in the education of refugee tibetan children, eventually founding and managing the Tibetan Children's Villages (TCV) in india. After her death, management of TCV was taken over by her youngest sister Je-tsun Pema.
She grew up in tibet and escaped to india with her brother the Dalai Lama, and her mother Dekyi Tsering.

"The Man from Onion Valley"
Losang Drakpa
Je Rinpoche
1357-1419 CE amdo tibetan - gelug

A famous teacher, Lobsang Tragpa. Founded the Gelukpa School of Tibetan Buddhism biblio: Born in Tibet, Chogyam Trungparef

Je Tsongkhapa at Wikipedia.org Je Tsongkhapa biography at LamaYeshe.com

Tulku Thondup 1939-present CE tibet tibetan - nyingma

Author of several books on healing and Tibetan Buddhism. One is The Healing Poer of Mind, 1996

more about
Yasodhara 6th c BCE sakya, nepal

Wife of Gautama the Buddha, when Gautama was a Prince, before his enlightenment.

Yasodharā at Wikipedia