|achala||Tib.||"sister"||Honorary term for sister.|
Honorary term for mother. Used as an honorific for any senior woman who is in that role to the person.
|amban||Manchu||"minister of state" (Chinese "ta-ch'en")||
Ambans lived in Tibet as representatives of the Manchu government.
The oldest of the Dhyani-Buddhas. (Five-fold buddhas), and also one of the Seven-fold Buddhas. He resides in Sukhavati, the Happy Land of Eternal Bliss, presiding silently over our present kalpa, the Bhadrakalpa. He represents the cosmic element of insight, sanjna, self-knowledge, which leads to compassion with other human souls. This is the vital fluid in soul and society, so Amitabha represents the summer season, vital for the fruits, and the color red. it was Amitabha (Japanese: Amida) who incarnated in Gautama. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
The fifth of the five Dhyani-Buddhas (Five-fold buddhas), and also of the Seven-fold Buddhas. He represents the important philosophical concept of sanskara, composition, synthesis. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
The embodiment of "All-accomplishing Wisdom" (Tibetan: "work-accomplishing wisdom"); "Realizer of the Aim"; related to karma, the path of action.
The original begging bowl of the Buddha, which provided food for him and his followers.
The country where it was taken would always have enough water and food. But most of the time it is hidden in the water of a lake, from which it emerges annually on Buddha's birthday. it rises up and flies toward the virtuous lady, Manimekhalai, who will receive it and gtravel with it to a town where there are many desitute people because of ddrought, disease and other disasters. At once, Indrda will order rain to fall so the crops cwill grow. Out of the one bowl, Manimekhalai will feed all the hungry townspeople, and all the sick and usffering will be healthy and happy as soon as they touch the bowl.
Similar concept the the Western Holy Grail, which word comes ultimately from the Greek krater, mixing bowl. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Ananda (also called Nanda "bull") was a half-brother of the Buddha who became his bosom friend. One day Ananda told Gautama that there would soon be a feast when he would marry. The Buddha told him that for him his whole life was a feast since he had overcome all desires and acquired enlightenment, so that he knew, saw and heard more than ever before; indeed he knew Absolute Truth. Ananda was converted and remained a lifelong friend and follower, becoming the Buddha's most devoted disciple, to whom the Buddha addressed many sermons. Ananda never married, but slept in the woods together with the Buddha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Also, an epithet of Shiva.
Filled with food, Goddess of Daily Bread.
Shiva as a mendicant priest, was very hungry. He was given food by his wife Parvati, or Ambi Annapurna, the mountain-goddess who is identified with the mountain Annapurna. He was so grateful that he embraced her until he became one with her. This unity in love has been represented in sculptures known as Ardhanari. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Half-man, half-woman: Shiva together with Parvati (Sita, Durga, the impenetrable fortress, also the loving mother Ambi Annapurna), Shiva embraced with Parvati in happines after receiving food from her. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
"The lord who is both male and female". While Braham was engaged in creating the universe, the earth, the animals, demons and human beings, he perceived that for the creation of lving beings male gods were not adequate. Thus he called Shiva, who appeared to him as Ardha-nari with the left side as a woman, the right side as a man. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Arupa Loka||Skt.||"The World of the Formless" (rupa = "form")|
|Avalokita||Skt.||"looking down, looking around"|
|Avici||Skt.||In Buddhist cosmology, the lowest hell for those who mock Buddha and dharma. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|bhikku bhiksu bhikshu tib: gelong bonze||Skt.||
from bhiksh - "to beg for alms"
A disciple studying
|bhikkuni||Skt., Tib.||Buddhist nun; student of scripture; Literally, a disciple studying Buddhism Also, ani.|
A goddess who, before Creation, rested at the bottom
of the primeval ocean.
here Brahma found her and raised her to the surface
in the shape of a many-petalled
Brahma Prajapati the Creator, is often depicted seated on the rising lotus absorbed in meditation. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Bodhidharma||Skt.||"awakening law"||A Buddhist scholar, the first to leave India to teach dhyana in China. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
Someone who has attained
to help others attain it.
"The Bodhisattva ideal is the aspiration to practice infinite compassion with infinite wisdom".
-- XIV Dalai Lama biblio: The Jew in the Lotusref
The most prominent Bodhisattvas, with the primal Bodhisattva, or Dhyani Buddha, of whom he is an emanation:
The last of the Bodhisattvas is Maitreya who lives in "heaven" and will descend on earth when the end of times is approaching, to lead all people to salvation.
The Bodhisattvas are the saviours of humanity because of their charity (karuna). They help us because their merit is transferred to lesser humans, and their bodhi helps others to find their way. the basic philosophy feeding this belief is the concept of identity (tat tvam asi) according to which we all form part of a cosmic system of merits and faults in which the merits or demerits (i.e., the karma) of one being affects those of all the others. (See mahayana.) biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Brahmavihara||Skt.||"brahma dwelling"||Divine dwelling. The state to which a Buddhist would aspire, by following the four rules of metta, karuna, mudita, upekkha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Buddha knower buddho||"awakened"||
The awakened one
The historic Buddha, Gautama.
First of the Three Jewels
|Buddha-Avatara||"the awakened one descended"||The concept of the Buddha as an incarnation of Vishnu. This concept is not acceptable to the Buddhists. They regard it as a misguided attempt to fit Buddhism into a small compartment of Hinduism, whereas in fact Buddhism has an entirely different philosophy, in which the many gods play only a subordinate role. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Chenresig chenresi avalokitesvara kwan-se um-bosal kannon kwan yin||Tib.|
From the Avalokiteshvara tradition:
For the present time he is ruler of our world and its living Buddha, though not living in the earthly sense. For that he would have to incarnate, which, according to some schools, he does from time to time. It should be stressed that, as with the Hindu deities, the spiritual essence of the buddhas and Bodhisattvas is always identical. Thus, Avalokiteshvara is described as "the Bhagavan", (i.e., the Lord), who takes the form of a Bodhisattva and whose duty it is to "look around" for the purpose of the welfare and happiness of the people on earth, and to teach them the way towards enlightenment.
There are 9 Bodhisattvas, of whom Avalokiteshvara is the most revered. He in turn is presented in sculptured form in 15 different rupas (shapes). Some say there are 333 known incarnations of Avalokiteshvara during the past 2,500 years since Gautama buddha went into paranirvana.
Avalokiteshvara has been worshipped as a god from perhaps as early as the third century CE. Hymns have been composed in his honor, describing his numerous appearances. Avaolkiteshvara is often depicted accompanied by the goddess Tara.
Avalokiteshvara has vowed that he will not accept the eternal peace of Nirvana until all human souls have found enlightement, because he decided that it would be selfish to enjoy peace and knowledge while the people are still suffering in ignorance. Their misery is his misery. He sheds tears in his sorrow for their pain.
|Chogyal of Sikkim||Tib.||The title of the former sovereign of Sikkim.|
|chola jhola||Tib.||Honorary term for eldest brother.|
|dakini||"She who goes in the sky"||A feminine aspect of divinity; a goddess. In the largest sense, a symbol of shunyata|
|Dalai Lama||"Ocean of Wisdom", "Ocean Teacher"||Honorific for the spiritual and temporal leader of Tibet, and leader of Buddhism, especially mahayana Buddhism. Head of the Gelukpa School, but also studies the teachings of the three other schools.|
|Dharma||Skt.||Husband of Shraddha, Faith, and father of Kamadeva, the God of Love. Also see the concept of dharma. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Dharmaketu||Skt.||"righteous banner"||"Whose Banner is Justice", praise-name of Buddha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Dhyani-Buddhas||Skt.||"meditation buddha"||Buddhas of Meditation. They also represent the attitudes of beneficence, instruction, and protection, and the Pancha-Tathagata (Five-fold Buddha).|
They emanate from (are manifestations of) the Adi-Buddha.
There are five, representing the five cosmic elements, (not including Adi-Buddha): 1st: Vairocana, 2nd: Akshobhya, 3rd: Ratnasambhava, 4th: Amitabha, 5th: Amoghasiddhi biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Each Dhyani-Buddha inspires a cycle of world-evolution (kalpa), and they may incarnate as a Buddha living on earth in each of these periods of history, through manifestation as a Bodhisattva, a Dhyani-Bodhisattva. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Represented in sculptures as absorbed in meditation. They sit in the lotus position in dhyanamudra, with or without a cup resting on the opened hands, signifying receptivity. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Dolma||Tib.||Tara. A goddess accompanying Avalokiteshvara. Created from a tear from his eye. Sometimes perceived as his shakti.|
Like Avalokiteshvara, she too appears in a confusing number of different forms, including the so-called "Color Taras": green, yellow, white, red and blue.
One of her many names is Vidyarajni, "Queen of Knowledge". She is full of compassion and devoted to alleviating the suffering of people on earth. Indeed, gradually she became the personification of compassion (karuna) and love (maitri). So, Tara was elevatd to the status of mother of all the Buddhas, shown with the royal vajra in her hand and a crown on her head. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
Tara-Amba, Tara the mother,
He is actually a set of five figures, the heads of the five Buddha families. This has one figure within them which is the collection of the essence of them, and which speaks through the kuten.
|Five-fold Buddha||The Pancha-tathagata, also, Dhyani-Buddhas|
|gelong||Tib.||"fully ordained Buddhist monk"||Buddhist monk; student of scripture, has taken vows of celibacy and follow other rules. a full member of the Sangha. (Sanskrit bhikku)|
|genyen||"One who has received the primariy ordination [of Buddhism]; this is imparted at one level to lay adherents, and at another to celibates training for an eventual monastic ordination in the full sense." (to become bhikkus.) biblio: Trungparef|
|Future Buddha||The Maitreya Buddha|
One who has completed advanced study in Tibetan Buddhist teachings.
A Tibetan Buddhist monk who has completed successfully the study of the 5 topics: Abhidharma Vinaya Madhyamaka Pramana Prajnaparamita. @FPMT_Nalanda.
|getsül||Tib.||"A novice Tibetan Buddhist monk." biblio: Trungparef|
|gönpo||Tib.||"Protective Divinity one"||A protective aspect of Divinity. biblio: Trungparef|
|Gyalwa Karmapa||Tib.||"Victorious Buddha-action"|
|Gyalwa Rinpoche||Tib.||"Precious Protector'||Honorific for the Dalai Lama.|
|Gyalyap||Tib.||Honorary term for the Dalai Lama's father.|
|Gyalyum||Tib.||Honorary term for the Dalai Lama's mother.|
One great god formed of the merging of Vishnu and Shiva, signifying the oneness of the divine essence and the illusion of reality.
"The twin-gods Vishnu and Shiva, merged into one great god, signifying the oneness of the divine essence. When Shiva saw Vishnu in his appearance as Mohini, even he fell in love with that beautiful woman, so he embraced her and merged with her, i.e., with Vishnu, who at that moment resumed his 'true' form.
This myth illustrates again the Hindu philosophy that multiplicity is an illusion of the human mind, but that all forms are delusive, whereas unity of essence is the only true principle." biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Hemakuta||Skt.||"golden peaks"||A mythical mountain range, lying to the north of the Himalayas towards Mount Meru. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Hors||Tib.||Tibetan tribe living in the region of Kham.|
|Ida/Ila||Skt.||"food", and by extension "praise" (food for the soul)||
Ida became the goddess of food, of offerings and of eloquence; the goddess of law, because eating and apportioning of food need to be regulated. And also of the earth, i.e., the cultivated field.
In one myth, she is Manu's daughter and married Budha, the planetary god Mercury.
She led a double life, being a woman for one month (Ida), and then changing in one night and living as a mamn (Ila) during the next month.
This double life may symbolize the alternating phases of the moon. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
"The god of wealth in the Buddhist tradition. (Kubera in the Hindu tradition.)
Carrying a bag of gold, sometimes holding a mongoose (the animal that fights snakes, nagas.
The nagas are the keepers of the treasures in the earth, so Jambhala wins gold with his mongoose.
He also holds a jambhara, a lemon; its seeds are the seeds of the world." biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
A Buddhist serpent-goddess; one of the oldest goddesses in India.
"The Buddhist serpent-goddess who is recognizable in sculpture by a sarpa-kundala, an ear ornament of a coiled cobra in each ear, and a sarpa-mekhala, a snake-necklace. She is also shown playing with a long cobra.
She cures snakebites and can prevent them. Special mantras are dedicated to her, which can extract snake poison if properly recited.
She plays the vina or other musical instrument. Her colors are white and gold.
|Kailasa||Skt.||"silver mountain"||Where Shiva has his palace, Mount Kailash|
|Kalachakra||Tib.||"Divinity of Tibetan Tantric Buddhism and his related teachings." biblio: Jetsun Pema, Tibet My Storyref|
|Kalon||Tib.||Minister, or Deputy, of the Tibetan Kashag.|
The god of love (kama, 'desire', Greek Eros, Roman Cupid).
|Karmapa Lama||Tib.||The leader of the Kagyud school of Buddhism; the Gyalwa Karmapa. His present incarnation is Orgyen Trödul. biblio: Trungparef|
|Kashag||Tib.||Council of ministers (kalons) of the Tibetan government in exile.|
"The third Manushi Buddha, who lived on earth for 20,000 years preceding Gautama Buddha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|kundun||Tib.||"presence"||Another honorific for the Dalai Lama. Also kundam.|
|lama guru teacher? ācariya อาจารย์ajahn sensei||Tib.||"master" "spiritual teacher"||
A Tibetan Buddhist sage and teacher.
Sanskrit "guru": A teacher; especially spiritual master, one's personal spiritual guide.
rinpoche: 'Important lamas, often incarnate ones, are accorded the title Rinpoche, meaning "precious one". Many lamas, though by no means all, are monks ... Conversely, there are many monks who would not necessarily be considered lamas, even though the use of the word is often extended in everyday speech as a polite form of address for any senior monk.' Ricard
Ajahn (อาจารย์) at Wikipedia.
|lharampa||Tib.||Highest Tibetan Buddhist doctorate awarded to monks at the end of their studies.|
One of the Seven-fold Buddhas.
|lonchen||Tib.||minister (in government).|
|Mahasattva||Skt.||"great truth"||One of the manfestations of the bodhisattva, in which he laid down near a hungry tigress inviting her to eat him, to save her from her suffering.|
|Maitreya maitri mila-fu miroku sri lanka: metteya mongolia, manchuria: maidari||Skt.||from mitri, "one who has friendship"||
The Buddha to come, a representative of the
The last of the five great
He will come to earth to bring peace, in about 5,000 years after Gautama Buddha.
When he comes to earth, 5,000 years after Gautama Buddha (or 4,000, or 3,000 according to some), all the people of the earth will follow him, peace will prevail, and humanity will end as all souls will be merged in nirvana.
Since Maitreya exists now, he can be communed with and give advice.
In images he has a stupa in his hair (symbol of future life), the flask of amrita in one hand (symbol of his life in heaven), and a lotus flower in the other, (symbol of self-creation), since the Bodhisattvas emanated from Adi Buddha via the Dhyani-Buddhas.
"In the beginning, he lived on Mount Panchashirsha ('five peaks') in the far north. One night he saw to the south a great flame of fire on a lotus. His intuition told him that this must signify the birth of the Adi Buddha. At once he set out to find the source of the light, and discovered that it burnt below the surface of a great lake surrounded by mountains. He drew his sword and carved a deep trench through the rocks. The water flowed away and exposed the becautiful valley which is now called Nepal, through which the River Baghmati still flows.
"Another legend relates that Buddha himself emitted a ray of light from his forehead. This ray hit a jambu tree from which at once a lotus flower sprouted. From the inner pistil 'sprouted a man, the beginning of the great master Manjushri, prince of sages'.
"Some Buddhists call him the founder of culture and learning in Nepal. He is venerated by some as the architect of the universe and the god of agriculture to whom the first day of the year is dedicated." biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Manushi Buddha||"A Buddha who has (temporarily) taken the shape of a man in order to live and work in the world," out of compassion for the suffering of living beings. "There are seven: Vipasyin, Sikhi, Vishvabhu, Krakucchanda, Kanakamuni, Kasyapa, Shakyamuni (Gautama). The last four belong to our present Kalpa. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Mara||Skt.||The god of death, physical love, seduction, and temptation. The personification of the ego. He sent his shapely daughters to dance in front of the Buddha Gautama as he sat in meditation.|
Mother is our first teacher of compassion, and is the earth from which we come.
"Mother is the first lama/Guru of compassion. Our spiritual lamas come later in life. The foundation of love and compassion built by our first lama or mother determines our propensity and ability to internalize these values when they are taught to us later in life by our spritual lamas.
"Take the case of we Tibetans, our Mahayana lamas may teach us the values of compassion. But that comes later in life, when we are at least about 15 years old. On the other hand, our mother teaches us the power and value of compassion right from our birth, and that too through its sheer practice and application."
The center of the world, the hub of the World Lotus from which the continents stretch out as the petals, resting on the surface of the seven oceans.
|Nechung Oracle||Tib.||The state oracle of the Tibetan government. The oracle is a deity named Dorje Drakden.|
|nyönpa||Tib.||sMyonPa - "madman"||crazy yogin. A tradition in 14th and 15 c. Tibet, and maybe other times/places?|
Manifestation of Avalokiteshvara.
One day when Amitabha's meditation was particularly intense, a ray of white light issued from his right eye which brought Padmapani-Avalokiteshvara into existence. Amitabha blessed him, whereupon Avalokiteshvara pronounced his first prayer: om mani padme hum, which means: The Jewel of Creation in the Lotus.
Together with his "parents", he presides over the present kalpa called Bhadrakalpa, "the Age of Prosperity". he will rule the universe from the Paranirvana of the Buddha Gautama to the appearance of the future Buddha, Maitreya, five thousand yers later, when this, the Fourth World, will have come to an end. Then Vishvapani will create the Fifth World and become its ruler as Maitreya, when all people will acquire bodhi.
He, Padmapani, created this world himself: from between his shoulders sprang Brahma, from his two eyes the sun and the moon, from his mouth the wind, from his navel the water, from his knees Lakshmi (the earth), from his hair Indra, from his teeth Sarasvati. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|pala||Tib.||"father"||Honorary term for father. Used as an honorific for any senior man who is in that role to the person.|
|Pancha-Tathagata Five-fold Buddha||Skt.||"five path-walkers"||
The Five-fold Buddha, i.e., the Dhyani Buddhas.
|Panchen Lama||"Great Scholar"||
The first Panchen Lama was recognized in Tibet
in the 17th c. CE under the
Fourth Dalai Lama,
The current Panchen Lama is being held prisoner by the Chinese government. [ref]
|Pandara||Shakti or "wife" of the Dhyani Buddha, Amitabha. Spiritual mother of Avalokiteshvara.|
|Parvati||Skt.||"mountain goddess", "daughter of the mountains"||Devi-Uma, Durga ("impenetrable fortress"), Girija, Adrija (both "mountain-born"), Pithasthana, Sati, Kali, Uma ("mother"). Goddess of the Himalayas; consort of Shiva, who she lives with on Mount Kailash.|
|Prajnaparamita||Skt.||"highest wisdom",||Saraswati merged with him.|
|Ratnasambhava||Skt.||"excellence ..."||The third of the Dhyani-Buddhas (Buddhas of Meditation, Five-fold buddhas), and also of the Seven-fold Buddhas. Represents the spritual element of vedana, sensation, feeling, the gateway of knowledge. Presides over the spring season when new life begins. his color is yellow. He is represented with a ratna, a jewel called a cintimani.|
|Sakyamuni||Skt., Tib.||"Sage of Sakya"||Praise-name of Gautama Buddha.|
|Samantaka||Skt.||"The destroyer of peace"`||Another name for Kama.|
|Samsara-Guru||Skt.||"The teacher of the world"`||Kama as guru. Another name for Kama, the god of love.|
A Hindu goddess of the arts.
the holy river flowing from the
along the borders between Punjab and Haryana
into the Indian Ocean.
|Seven-fold Buddha||The Buddhas Vairocana, Akshobhya, Ratnasambhava, Amitabha, Amoghasiddhi, (the Dhyani Buddhas), and Vajrapani and Lokeshvara. Vajrapani is a Bodhisattva. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Shakti||Skt.||"the power"||Another name for Uma, Parvati, or Kali. Associated with Tantra. Same word as the concept of shakti? biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Shraddha||Skt.||"faith"||Wife of Dharma, the God of Justice, and mother of Kamadeva, the God of Love. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Siddartha||Skt.||"the one who has achieved his purpose"||Praise-name of Gautama Buddha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Sugata||Skt.||"going well"||i.e., "walking the right path"; a name for the Buddha. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref|
|Tathagata||Skt.||"path goer", "path walker"|
called himself Tathagata,
|teacher||Eng.||See gegen, geshe, guru, lama, togden.|
See also gegen, geshe, guru, lama.
|Trungpa Tulku||Tib.||Tulku of the Kagyud school, abbot of Surmang. The tenth was XXX, and the eleventh was Chögyam Trungpa. biblio: Trungparef|
|Tsi-Pon||Tib.||Minister of Finance, in Tibetan government.|
Second-class geshe (doctor). Examination results are announced during the Tsokchoe festival.
Mong. gegeen, huhuktu
of a highly-realized master.
Also called a
«A life becomes the result of a previous one through a kind of kinetic energy.
»Any individual who has reached a high level of spiritual development is supposed to be able to direct this energy in a special way at the time of his death, so that it gives birth to a tulku - a reincarnated lama.
»The tulku is not the same person as the prevous lama, but represents the active continuation of his positive qualities, wisdom and blessings.
»The phenomenon always existed in Buddhism, but no particular attention was given to it. It was not until the eleventh century that a Tibetan lama, Karmapa, talked about his tulku. The tulku was given the same name as his predecessor, thus initiating the first lineage of reincarnation.
«As the sytem proved to be useful at both spiritual and material levels, it developed over the course of the centuries, giving birth, in the fifteenth century, to the lineage of the Dalai Lama, and to that of the Panchen Lama in the seventeenth century.» biblio: Jetsun Pema, Tibet My Storyref
«Multiple incarnations ... most frequently occur in fives, [posibly related to five-fold buddha?] of which one in particular will embody the visible presence of the departed Lama, another his powers of speech, and yet another his powers of thought; again, one will represent his activities and another his qualities." biblio: Trungparef
|Tushita||The heaven where the Buddhas live.|
In Nepal the first,
the fourth, of the
(Five-fold buddhas), and also of the
In Nepal he resides in the inner sanctum of the stupa. His color is white, his season his autumn. he represents the philosophical concept of rupa, form. Without form there is no individual existence. Autumn is the season of disintegration of forms, which teaches us that we must distinguish form from essence. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
One of the
Also, one of the eight principal Bodhisattvas. The spiritual son of the Dhyani-Buddha Akshobhya and his shakti Mamaki. His mantra is om vajrapani hum. He carries a vajra and a lotus. His color is white. biblio: Indian Mythology, Jan Knappertref
|Vajravina||A form of Saraswati. In medieval sculpture, holds the vina in her right hand.|
|Yama||God of the Dead. Holds the Wheel of Life,|
Pretas, hungry ghosts --
"living spirits who are afflicted constantly with
the miseries of huger and thirst"
One of the Six Worlds in the Wheel of Life
|yidam||A deity visualized in deity yoga.|
|yogin||A person practicing yoga.|